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Frequently bought together

  • Antimicrobial Activity
  • Wound Healing Enhancement
  • Immune Modulation

LL-37 is a naturally occurring human peptide known for its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, ability to enhance wound healing, and modulation of the immune system. It is commonly employed in research and therapeutic applications aimed at treating infections, accelerating wound recovery, and boosting immune response.

Legal Notice: This item is available exclusively for scientific research purposes. It is sold in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) state, contained within a hermetically sealed and sterile vial. Use requires extra equipment such as bacteriostatic water for reconstitution, syringes and needles for extraction, and alcohol swabs to sanitize vial caps. The cap color, may differ from the images shown. Learn More

Benefits and Applications

  • Antimicrobial Activity: LL-37 exhibits potent antimicrobial properties, capable of killing a wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and even some parasites. It helps the body defend against infections and plays a crucial role in innate immunity.
  • Wound Healing Support: LL-37 promotes wound healing by accelerating the migration and proliferation of skin cells, enhancing collagen production, and reducing inflammation. It helps to facilitate the repair of damaged tissues and minimize the risk of infection.
  • Immune Modulation: LL-37 modulates the immune system by regulating the production and activity of various immune cells and cytokines. It helps maintain immune homeostasis and can enhance the body's response to infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects: LL-37 has anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms associated with inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. It helps soothe inflamed tissues and promote healing.
  • Potential Cancer Therapeutic: LL-37 has shown promise as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. It exhibits antitumor activity by inducing cancer cell death, inhibiting angiogenesis, and modulating immune responses against tumors.

Research and Studies

Study Title: "Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of LL-37 in Bacterial Infections"

  • Method: This study investigated the efficacy of LL-37 in combating bacterial infections and modulating immune responses in infected mouse models.
  • Results: LL-37 treatment significantly reduced bacterial loads and modulated inflammatory responses, decreasing cytokine production and enhancing leukocyte activity.
  • Conclusion: LL-37 has strong antimicrobial effects against a variety of pathogens and plays a crucial role in modulating the immune response, making it a potential therapeutic agent in treating bacterial infections.

Study Title: "Role of LL-37 in Enhancing Wound Healing in Diabetic Ulcers"

  • Method: The study focused on the application of LL-37 in diabetic ulcer models to assess its impact on wound closure rates and infection prevention.
  • Results: Application of LL-37 led to faster wound closure and reduced incidence of infections, with observed increases in collagen deposition and angiogenesis.
  • Conclusion: LL-37 promotes wound healing and reduces infection rates in diabetic ulcers, suggesting its beneficial use in advanced wound care treatments.

Study Title: "LL-37 in Preventing Respiratory Infections in COPD Patients"

  • Method: This clinical trial assessed the protective effects of LL-37 in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prone to respiratory infections.
  • Results: Treatment with LL-37 reduced the frequency of respiratory infections and improved pulmonary function in COPD patients.
  • Conclusion: LL-37 could serve as a preventive treatment against respiratory infections in patients with compromised lung function, offering a novel approach to managing COPD-related complications.

Study Title: "Comparative Analysis of LL-37 and Conventional Antibiotics in Treating Skin Infections"

  • Method: This comparative study evaluated the effectiveness of LL-37 against traditional antibiotics in treating skin infections in clinical settings.
  • Results: LL-37 was found to be equally effective as some antibiotics in treating skin infections and showed lower rates of inducing bacterial resistance.
  • Conclusion: LL-37 could be a viable alternative to traditional antibiotics for treating skin infections, with the added benefit of a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

These studies highlight the versatile potential of LL-37 as a therapeutic peptide with effective antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and wound healing properties. Its ability to treat a variety of conditions with minimal side effects makes LL-37 a promising candidate for future drug development and clinical applications.

Mechanism of Action

Mechanisms of Action for LL-37

LL-37, a cathelicidin-derived peptide, plays a critical role in the innate immune response. Known for its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, LL-37 also modulates immune responses, influences wound healing, and affects cell proliferation. Its mechanisms are multifaceted, reflecting its importance in host defense and tissue repair.

Antimicrobial Activity

LL-37 exhibits potent antimicrobial properties against a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membranes, leading to cell lysis and death. This disruption is achieved through the peptide's ability to bind to lipid components of microbial membranes, altering their structural integrity.

Modulation of Immune Responses

Beyond its direct antimicrobial effects, LL-37 plays a significant role in modulating immune responses. It can attract immune cells such as monocytes, neutrophils, and T-cells to sites of infection or inflammation through chemotaxis. Additionally, LL-37 influences cytokine production, promoting the release of cytokines that drive inflammatory responses and inhibiting those that suppress immune activity.

Promotion of Wound Healing

LL-37 also contributes to wound healing processes. It promotes angiogenesis—the formation of new blood vessels—and enhances the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and other skin cells necessary for tissue repair. By regulating these cellular activities, LL-37 helps in the rapid closure and healing of wounds.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Despite its role in promoting certain aspects of the inflammatory response, LL-37 can also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties under specific conditions. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in some contexts, helping to control excessive inflammatory responses that can lead to tissue damage.

Influence on Cancer Cell Behavior

Emerging research suggests that LL-37 may influence cancer cell behavior, although these effects are complex and can vary depending on the type of cancer. In some cases, LL-37 has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, while in others, it appears to promote cancer cell proliferation and survival.

Impact on Autoimmune Diseases

LL-37's ability to modulate immune responses has implications for autoimmune diseases, where it might either exacerbate or alleviate disease symptoms depending on the context. Its role in these diseases is an active area of research, focusing on how modifying LL-37 expression or activity could lead to new therapeutic strategies.

Safety and Side Effects

Side Effects:
Given that LL-37 is a relatively novel area of study, especially in therapeutic contexts, detailed information on side effects is limited. Potential side effects based on the known mechanisms and limited human studies might include:

  • Injection site reactions, such as pain, redness, or swelling, since therapeutic applications would likely involve injections.
  • Potential immune system effects, such as exacerbation or modulation of inflammatory responses, which could be beneficial or harmful depending on the individual's condition and the balance of immune responses.
  • Possible systemic effects if used in high doses or systemically, although specific side effects are not well-documented.

Safety Profile:

  • Limited human data: Most of the research on LL-37 has been conducted in vitro (in the lab) or in animal models. Human studies are relatively rare, and as such, the comprehensive safety profile of LL-37 in therapeutic use is not well established.
  • Potential as a therapeutic agent: LL-37’s role in modulating immune responses and enhancing wound healing is promising, but its use in medicine requires further clinical trials to ascertain safe and effective dosages and to understand long-term impacts.
  • Concerns about resistance: As with any antimicrobial agent, there is a theoretical risk that widespread use could contribute to resistance, though this risk may be lower with peptides like LL-37 compared to traditional antibiotics.

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