Peptide Therapy for Healing

Peptide Therapy for Healing

In recent years, peptide therapy has surged in popularity, offering numerous benefits for health, athletic performance, immune function, and injury recovery. However, what are peptides exactly, and how do they function? With so many questions surrounding peptide therapy, it's important to have a deeper understanding of their role in optimizing healing processes.

Understanding Peptides

Peptides are naturally occurring molecules that form when two or more single amino acids join via peptide bonds to form a short chain. They are present in various live forms actively participating in diverse biological processes. Peptides are naturally produced from DNA sequences through the transcription process, much like proteins.

We have numerous different peptides in our bodies each working as a different signaling molecule for various bodily functions. Keep in mind that these peptides differ from those that you would get from a pharmacy. With that said, there are two types of peptides endogenous and exogenous peptides. [1]

Endogenous peptides

These types of peptides are produced within the body by various cells and tissues, playing an important role in physiological processes like cell signaling, immune response, and tissue repair. Examples of endogenous peptides include hormones like insulin and growth hormone, neurotransmitters like endorphins and oxytocin, and signaling molecules like cytokines.

Exogenous peptides

On the other hand, exogenous peptides get into our bodies from external sources such as food or pharmaceuticals. They are derived either from dietary sources like proteins in food or synthesized in a laboratory. These peptides mimic the actions of endogenous peptides effectively modulating biological functions. Examples of exogenous peptides include BPC-157, Tirzepatide, TB-500, Ipamorelin, and many others.


Body Protection Compound 157 (BPC-157) is a naturally occurring peptide found in gastric fluids, composed of 15 amino acids. BPC-157 has been studied for possible regenerative abilities. It's thought that this peptide may aid in the repair of damaged tissues, such as injured skin, ligaments, and tendons. [2]

According to studies, BPC-157 effectively improved the recovery of rats undergoing surgical or toxic trauma. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence supporting these benefits for humans.  However, numerous anecdotal reports claim its effectiveness in treating orthopedic injuries. [3]

For therapeutic purposes, BPC-157 is available in injectable, oral, intranasal, and topical forms. This peptide is effective regardless of the administration route. However, when injected directly into the tear or a joint it showed greater results under fluoroscopy or ultrasound.

How Does BPC-157 Work?

BPC-157 has various potential mechanisms of action. It may promote nitric oxide synthesis, activation of cells that are involved in tissue repair, stimulate growth factor synthesis, and inhibit inflammation. All these mechanisms can overlap, meaning that this peptide may be effective in addressing different ailments.

While injecting BPC-157 directly impacts tissues at the injection site, oral administration can also have these effects, according to animal studies, pointing out that this delivery route can also be effective. [4]

Benefits of BPC-157

BPC-157 may be effective in treating a range of medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), muscle damage, ulcerative colitis, gastric ulcers, and tendonitis. Furthermore, studies indicate its potential effectiveness in managing chronic pain resulting from nerve damage or injury. BPC-157 could also contribute to improving gut health and offering protection against oxidative stress induced by free radicals in the body. Some other benefits of this peptide include:

  • Promoting Wound Healing
  • Accelerating Tissue Regeneration
  • Increasing Blood Flow
  • Boosting Immune Function
  • Improving Muscle Strength and Endurance

Thymosin-Beta 4

Before we start talking about TB-4 (Thymosin-Beta 4) it's important to note that it's not the same as TB-500. The main difference is that TB-4 has 43 amino acids in it, while TB-500 has 7, making it a fragment. While TB-4 doesn't have as strong anti-inflammatory effects as TB-500 it offers a range of different benefits.

TB-4 is found in every cell in the human body but is present in higher concentrations in damaged tissue. Thymosin-Beta 4 can enhance angiogenesis, and cell migration, promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, decrease inflammatory cytokines, and reactivate progenitor cells. These effects may contribute to its wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as promoting hair growth, calming muscle spasms, and increasing endurance, strength, and flexibility. [4]

How Does Thymosin-Beta 4 Work?

Thymosin-Beta 4 interacts with actin and facilitates cell migration processes, including the mobilization, migration, and differentiation of stem cells, which are important for the regeneration of the tissue. Actin is also important for the formation of new blood vessels at the injury site during the recovery process. [5]

Benefits of Thymosin-Beta 4

Thymosin Beta-4 offers a range of different benefits due to its wide-ranging effects on various tissues throughout the body.  One of its most prominent benefits is its ability to enhance wound healing. As a result, many people opt for TB-4 therapy to aid in their recovery from injuries. Additionally, there's growing interest in using TB-4 for heart attack recovery, with research showing its potential role in repairing heart tissue. A study conducted in 2016 even demonstrated that Thymosin Beta-4 treatment can improve left ventricular function following a heart attack. [6]

Some of the other benefits are:

  • Reducing brain inflammation.
  • Enhancing healing following corneal eye injuries.
  • Improving dry-eye syndrome.
  • Protecting the liver.
  • Alleviating renal fibrosis.
  • Promoting hair regrowth.

Growth Hormone Secretagogues

Growth Hormone Secretagogues are peptides that stimulate the production and release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Among them, CJC 1295, DAC (Mod GRF 1-29), and Ipamorelin are notable for their ability to enhance growth hormone levels, which can contribute to tissue repair, muscle growth, and rejuvenation.

How Do Growth Hormone Secretagogues Work?

Growth Hormone (GH) Secretagogues create a signal to the pituitary gland to secrete more of your own growth hormone. They work by activating specific receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, ultimately leading to the release of GH into the bloodstream. [7]

There are two categories of GH Secretagogues, GH-releasing hormones (GHRH) which stimulate GHRH receptors, these include CJC1295, GRF 1-29, Tesamorelin, and Sermorelin.  The other class is GH-releasing peptides (GHRP), stimulating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. These include Ipamorelin, Hexamorelin, GHRP2/6, and MK-667.

They also stimulate Ghrelin receptors. Ghrelin, often referred to as the "hunger hormone," is a ligand that binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to stimulate GH release. Upon binding to Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptors (GHS-Rs) and ghrelin receptors, Growth Hormone Secretagogues initiate signaling cascades within cells. These signaling pathways typically involve the activation of G proteins, which then trigger the release of calcium ions and the activation of protein kinases. Ultimately, these intracellular events lead to the exocytosis of GH-containing vesicles from secretory cells in the pituitary gland, resulting in the release of GH into the bloodstream.

CJC 1295 With DAC (Mod GRF 1-29)

CJC 1295 is a peptide consisting of 30 amino acids, known for its ability to stimulate the pituitary gland's secretion of growth hormones. Much like other Growth Hormone Secretagogues it works by activating the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors (GHS-Rs), stimulating the release of growth hormone. [8]

However, basic CJC 1295 has a relatively short half-life in the body, meaning its effects are not sustained over an extended period. On the other hand, CJC 1295 with DAC is modified in such a way that it prolongs the half-life of CJC 1295 in the body allowing for a more sustained release of growth hormone. By causing an extended duration of growth hormone release CJC 1295 with DAC leads to lower levels of body fat, increase in strength, and promotes growth of lean muscle while increasing the metabolism.

This extended half-life results in a more gradual and prolonged increase in growth hormone levels.  The presence of DAC enhances the stability and duration of action of CJC 1295, providing users with longer-lasting effects.


Ipamorelin is another great Growth Hormone Secretagogue consisting of  4 amino acids. It activates the Ghrelin receptor, promoting the release of GH into the bloodstream. Apart from its primary role, this peptide is linked to various other benefits beyond just increasing growth hormone levels. It may improve cognitive function, sleep, memory, energy levels and increase collagen production and cell regeneration. [9]

What sets Ipamorelin apart is that it can promote growth hormone release without increasing levels of cortisol, prolactin, aldosterone, and acetylcholine. It also doesn't increase appetite, which is typical when GH is released.

Tying All Together

To maximize healing, peptides should be used in conjunction with other practices to make the environment of your body healthier. When combined with the peptide therapy the body will respond better.

For instance, fasting can activate autophagy, combined with NAD+ coenzyme, quercetin, a flavonoid-rich in antioxidants, and Rapamycin an immunosuppressant drug, can all stimulate the stimulate senescent cells to transition out of senescence. Simply put, these practices and supplements can clean up old or damaged cells by making them more active and healthy.

To speed up the recovery it's recommended to up the intake of proteins,  with 1 to 2g of protein per kilogram of body weight. Collagen is another great addition to a peptide regimen as it can significantly improve the structure of the skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments, while peptides can stimulate collagen production and support various bodily functions.



[1] Martini S, Tagliazucchi D. Bioactive Peptides in Human Health and Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 19;24(6):5837. doi: 10.3390/ijms24065837. PMID: 36982911; PMCID: PMC10055948.

[2] Sikiric P, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, Misic M, Vuletic LB, Pavlov KH, Barisic I, Kokot A, Peklic M, Strbe S, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Rokotov DS, Vrcic H, Staresinic M, Seiwerth S. Novel Cytoprotective Mediator, Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Vascular Recruitment and Gastrointestinal Tract Healing. Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24(18):1990-2001. doi: 10.2174/1381612824666180608101119. PMID: 29879879.

[3] Staresinic M, Sebecic B, Patrlj L, Jadrijevic S, Suknaic S, Perovic D, Aralica G, Zarkovic N, Borovic S, Srdjak M, Hajdarevic K, Kopljar M, Batelja L, Boban-Blagaic A, Turcic I, Anic T, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 accelerates healing of transected rat Achilles tendon and in vitro stimulates tendocytes growth. J Orthop Res. 2003 Nov;21(6):976-83. doi: 10.1016/S0736-0266(03)00110-4. PMID: 14554208.

[4]  Jung YH, Kim H, Kim H, Kim E, Baik J, Kang H. The anti-nociceptive effect of BPC-157 on the incisional pain model in rats. J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2022 Apr;22(2):97-105. doi: 10.17245/jdapm.2022.22.2.97. Epub 2022 Mar 25. PMID: 35449779; PMCID: PMC8995671.

[5] Xing Y, Ye Y, Zuo H, Li Y. Progress on the Function and Application of Thymosin β4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Dec 21;12:767785. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.767785. PMID: 34992578; PMCID: PMC8724243.

[6] Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Sosne G, Kleinman HK. Thymosin β4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 Jan;12(1):37-51. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2012.634793. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22074294.

[7] Stark, C., Helenius, M., Taimen, P. et al. Thymosin beta 4 treatment improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction and is related to Up-regulation of chitinase 3-like-1 in mice. transl med commun 1, 8 (2016).

[8] Yin Y, Li Y, Zhang W. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor: its intracellular signaling and regulation. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Mar 19;15(3):4837-55. doi: 10.3390/ijms15034837. PMID: 24651458; PMCID: PMC3975427.

[9] Timms M, Ganio K, Forbes G, Bailey S, Steel R. An immuno polymerase chain reaction screen for the detection of CJC-1295 and other growth-hormone-releasing hormone analogs in equine plasma. Drug Test Anal. 2019 Jun;11(6):804-812. doi: 10.1002/dta.2554. Epub 2018 Dec 25. PMID: 30489688.

[10] Raun K, Hansen BS, Johansen NL, Thøgersen H, Madsen K, Ankersen M, Andersen PH. Ipamorelin, the first selective growth hormone secretagogue. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):552-61. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1390552. PMID: 9849822.

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